Zhao, L., Jiang, G., & Wang, Y. (2011). Related factors of game violence exposure in high school students. Chinese Mental Health Journal, 25(5), 374-379.

Objective: To analyses the related factors of video game violence exposure in middle school students. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, one middle school in Hubei province was selected by convenience sampling. Totally 1,562 high school students aged 14 ~ 18 years were assessed with the scales such as the Habits in Video Game Questionnaire (including whether exposure to violent games, exposed quantity and gaming frequency), Circumstance Questionnaire (including domestic violence, peer violence, video violence and frustration of life), and Mentality Questionnaire (competition and self-esteem). Results: The results showed that domestic violence, peer violence, frustration of life dropped into the regression equation of “whether exposure to violent games” and “exposed quantity”, while self-esteem fell into the former and television violence into the later. Father’s educational level ( β = -0.37),television violence (β = -0.30), and self-esteem ( β = -0.18) could decrease the exposed quantity. Domestic violence ( β = 0.15) could increase the quantity. Gaming frequency had significant positive correlation with the degree of games’ violence ( r = 0.29). Conclusion: The demographic variables, psychological factors and environmental factors could influence the “whether exposure to violent games” and “exposed quantity”. Highly educated father, high TV violence, high self-esteem and low domestic violence may induce less increase (or more decrease) in game violence exposure. Game violence itself may increase the exposed quantity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)