Yu, H.S. (2002). Effects of success and failure in interpersonal competition in violent and nonviolent video games on players’ affect and self-ascribed toughness. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Alabama, 2002). Dissertation Abstract International, 63 (10-A), 3411.

Abstract: This study investigated whether personal victory in interpersonal competitive play of video games would lead to an increase in postgame positive mood states, distress tolerance, and cognitive self-defensive confidence in aggressive situations, whereas personal defeat would result in the reverse effect. It was also examined whether personal victory would lower distress perception, whereas personal defeat would heighten it. In addition, this study explored whether these suggested effects were larger after playing violent video games than after playing nonviolent video games. Sixty male participants in a same-sex pair, with a confederate who was purported to be another research participant, played competitively to win a video game. The participants were randomly assigned to one of six experimental conditions differing in levels of violence (violent vs. nonviolent) and competition outcomes (victory vs. tied vs. defeat). Affective responses were measured immediately after playing an interpersonal competitive video game. Distress tolerance and perception of the finger-pressor stimulation, and perceptions of several persons and defensive self-confidence in fighting situations involving the persons, were then measured. The study found that personal victory produced more intensely positive and less intensely negative mood than did personal defeat. Experienced positive affect was rated higher after playing a violent video game than after playing a nonviolent one. However, postgame negative mood was not significantly different between the violent and nonviolent video game conditions. Personal defeat led to increased distress tolerance, whereas personal victory resulted in lowered distress tolerance. Personal defeat was also related to lower distress ratings, whereas personal victory resulted in heightened distress ratings. Participants in the victory condition perceived a strong-looking man as being more dangerous than participants in the defeat and tied conditions. Although participants in the victory condition perceived the strong-looking man as more dangerous than did participants in the defeat condition, they reported high defensive confidence that was not significantly different from confidence in the defeat condition. However, participants in the defeat condition perceived the strong-looking man as less dangerous and showed defensive confidence comparable to the participants in the victory condition. Implications for further research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)