Wilson, B.J., Smith, S.L., Potter, W.J., Kunkel, D., Linz, D., et.al. (2002). Violence in children’s television programming: Assessing the risks. Journal of Communication, 52 (1), 5-35.

Abstract: Examined the nature and extent of violence contained in television programming that targets children below the age of 12 yrs. 2,757 television programs broadcast in the Los Angeles area during the period October 1995 through June 1996 were assessed for violence. Results show that programs targeted toward children contained more violence than other types of programming. Nearly 70% of children’s shows contained some physical aggression, whereas approximately 60% of non-children’s shows contained some physical aggression. In addition, violence was more concentrated within children’s shows. A typical hour of children’s programming contained 14 different violent incidents between a perpetrator and victim. In contrast, non-children’s programming featured only a third of these incidents. The violence itself was just as likely to be glamorized in children’s as in non-children’s shows, but was even more sanitized and more likely to be trivialized. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)