Wiesenthal, D.L., Hennessy, D.A., & Totten, B. (2003). The influence of music on mild driver aggression. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behavior, 6 (2), 125-134.

Abstract: Forty automobile drivers (aged 20-50 yrs) were randomly assigned to either a “music” or “non-music” group. The music group listened to their favorite music, while the non-music group abstained from any music or talk radio, during their entire commute to or from school/work. Using a cellular telephone, state measures of driver aggression, time urgency, and stress arousal were obtained during a single commute in low and high congestion conditions. No predictors of mild aggression were found in low congestion. In high congestion, a music×time urgency interaction was found. Mild aggression was lower among those listening to music but only at low levels of time urgency. Results are interpreted in terms of the distractibility and relaxation effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)