Westerman, D., & Tamborini, R. (2010). Scriptedness and televised sports: Violent consumption and viewer enjoyment. Journal Of Language And Social Psychology,29(3), 321-337. doi:10.1177/0261927X10368835

Extending Raney and Depalma’s research, this study examined effects of sport production on sport consumption. An experimental design crossed scripted (vs. unscripted) sport with violence (vs. nonviolence) to investigate the effects of both variables on violent outcomes and enjoyment. After viewing one of four clips, participants responded to three incomplete story stems, and responses were coded to measure hostile expectancy bias as a form of violent outcome. Participants also responded to their enjoyment of the clip they consumed. Analyses showed a main effect that consuming sport violence increased participants’ hostile expectancy bias. However, a significant interaction showed that scriptedness moderated this effect, such that violence increased hostile expectancy bias only in the scripted condition. Enjoyment was also affected by scriptedness and violence, as violent nonscripted sports were enjoyed more than all other conditions. Results suggest that violence in sports may be interpreted differently based on the scriptedness of the sport and may be processed differently than violence in other forms of entertainment. Implications of these findings are discussed, as are limitations and future directions for study. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)