Wann, D.L., Haynes, G., Mclean, B., & Pullen, P. (2003). Sport team identification and willingness to consider anonymous acts of hostile aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 29 (5), 406-413.

Abstract: Previous research indicated that a sizeable minority of individuals report a willingness to consider engaging in anonymous acts of instrumental aggression directed toward players and coaches of a rival team. Individuals with a high degree of identification with their favorite team were particularly likely to consider such acts. The current investigation was designed to extend this research by examining the likelihood that individuals would consider engaging in hostile anonymous aggression. It was expected that highly identified persons would be particularly likely to consider these acts, even though the acts would not provide a competitive advantage for their team. Data collected from 175 university students (aged 18-57 yrs) confirmed the expectations. In addition, the results indicated that males were more likely than females to report a willingness to consider the hostile aggressive acts and that participants were more likely to report a willingness to engage in less destructive acts (e.g., tripping an opposing player or coach) than more destructive acts (e.g., murdering an opposing player or coach). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)