Wann, D. L., Carlson, J. D., & Schrader, M. D. (1999). The Impact of team identification on the hostile and instrumental verbal aggression of sport spectators. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 14 (2), 279-286.
Abstract: Examined the hostile and instrumental verbal aggression of sport spectators. It was hypothesized that highly identified fans would report higher levels of hostile and instrumental aggression than fans low in identification and that aggression directed toward the officials would tend to be hostile in nature. Prior to attending a men’s college basketball game, 196 college students (mean age 21.3 yrs) were asked to complete a measure of their team identification. After the contest, they were asked to indicate the degree to which they had acted aggressively toward the officials and opposition for hostile and instrumental reasons. The results reveal strong support for both hypotheses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)