Walters, R. H., Parke, R. D., & Cane, V. A. (1965). Timing of punishment and the observation of consequences to others as determinants of response inhibition. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 2 (1), 10-30.

Abstract:  80 Grade 1 and kindergarten children were assigned to 1 of 8 conditions in a 2 X 4 factorial design involving 2 conditions of timing of punishment and 4 film conditions. ½ the children under each film condition received punishment as they initiated a deviant response sequence; the remaining Ss were punished only after completing the deviation. After punishment training, Ss were assigned to 1 of 4 film conditions: film model rewarded for deviation; film model punished for deviation; no consequence to the film model; no film. Ss who received early punishment subsequently showed more resistance to deviation than Ss for whom punishment was delayed. There were significant differences among Ss under the 4 film conditions, with model-punished Ss showing relatively high resistance to deviation. A combination of early-punishment training and exposure to a punished model was most effective in producing inhibition. Subsequent tests with problem-solving tasks, the solution of which had been demonstrated in the films, revealed that Ss under model-rewarded and no-consequences conditions had learned from observation of the model; however, model-punished Ss did not perform significantly better in these tests than Ss who had not seen the film model. (23 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)