Vidal, M.A., Clements, M., & Espinosa, P. (2003). Types of media violence and degree of acceptance in under-18s. Aggressive Behavior, 29 (5), 381-392.

Abstract: It is an established fact that almost every TV channel offers a high level of violent content. The object of this study is to check the degree of acceptance of this media violence in under-18s. We will also check what cognitive and emotional effects the viewing of different types of violence has. A sample of 203 subjects aged 13 years from Madrid, Spain, viewed a clip from different films. Before and after the film, data were collected about their opinion on violence. Three viewing conditions were established according to the degree and type of violence shown and based on Berkowitz [(1996): Desclee De Brouwer]: action without violence, socially justified violence, and socially unjustified violence. Several ANOVAs were carried out revealing that violence is better valued and more attractive after watching the film sequences than before the showing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)