Van Mierlo, J., & Van den Bulck, J. (2004). Benchmarking the cultivation approach to video game effects: A comparison of the correlates of TV viewing and game play. Journal of Adolescence, 27 (1), 97-111.

Abstract: This study found significant relationships between first- and second-order cultivation measures and TV viewing, but found a relationship with video game play for only two variables in a sample of 322 Flemish 3rd and 6th year secondary school children. This suggests that the absence of a relationship with video game play is not the result of the absence of cultivation effects in Flanders. On the other hand it shows that the relationship between TV viewing and cultivation measures is not an artifact of systematic over reporting. The study concludes that cultivation measures typical of the “television world” are not related to playing video games. To study video game cultivation measures must be sought which reflect the mainstream of (particular genres of) video games. The role of selectivity needs to be studied more closely. As gamers play an active role in the violence of the games the possibility that self-protecting strategies are employed in processing video game contents must be taken into consideration. Existing process theories explaining what happens in television cultivation may be challenged by research into the cultivation effects of video games. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)