Stott, C., Hutchison, P, & Drury, J. (2001). “Hooligans” abroad? Inter-group dynamics, social identity and participation in collective “disorder” at the 1998 World Cup Finals. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40 (3), 359-384.

Abstract: During the 1998 Football World Cup Finals in France, English supporters were involved in major incidents of collectivedisorder‘. Explanations for these incidents concentrated on the conflictual norms held by “hooligans’. In contrast, Scottish supporters displayed norms of non-violence, explained in terms of the absence of hooligans. This study challenges this tendency to explain collective disorder in the context of football in terms of the presence or absence of hooligan fans. Using data from Scottish and English 121), we examine the processes through = supporters attending the tournament (N which ordinarily peaceful supporters would or would not become involved in collective conflict. In line with the Elaborated Social Identity Model (ESIM) of crowd behavior, the analysis highlights the role of the intergroup context. Where out-group activity was seen as illegitimate, in-group members redefined their identity such that violent action toward out-group members was seen as legitimate. Where there was no out-group hostility, in-group members defined themselves through an explicit contrast with the hooligan supporters of rival teams. This analysis of crowd behavior shows how the ESIM can account for not only the presence, but also the absence, of collective disorder. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)