Smith, H., & Thomas, S. P. (2000). Violent and nonviolent girls: Contrasting perceptions of anger experiences, school, and relationships. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 21 (5), 547-575.

Abstract:  Surveyed a national sample of 213 girls (aged 9-19 yrs) via personal interview or an Internet questionnaire, regarding anger precipitants and behaviors, interpersonal relationships, and experiences 54) if = of discipline at home and school. Girls were categorized as violent (n they had been suspended or expelled from school for fighting or bringing a weapon, or charged with a violent offense by the juvenile justice system. The 159) were categorized as nonviolent. The anger of violent = remaining girls (n girls tended to be intense and generalized, while the anger of nonviolent girls was precipitated by specific situations of injustice. Correlates of feeling angry enough to hit or hurt someone were loneliness, unfair treatment by adults, not being liked by classmates, and somatic anger symptoms. Violent girls were significantly more likely to dislike school and perceive school discipline as unfair. Both groups of girls held negative views of television violence and curfews. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)