Singer, J. L., & Singer, D. G., & Rapaczynski, W. S. (1984). Family patterns and television viewing as predictors of children’s beliefs and aggression. Journal of Communication 34 (2), 73-89.

Abstract:  63 4-yr-olds were observed during play and scored for aggression while their parents maintained daily logs of Ss’ TV viewing (TVV) for 2-wk periods to examine ways in which Ss’ family life and TVV combined to predict aspects of their conscious experience, social interaction patterns, and behavior. Ss were also followed for approximately 6 yrs to relate familial factors, along with TVV, to Ss’ beliefs and behavior. It was hypothesized that several variables–including parental use of power or physical punishment, disorderly household routines, heavy TVV (especially of action-adventure programs) in early childhood, and unrestrained TVV–would combine to predict Ss’ later aggressive or restless behavior, poor school adjustment, restlessness and poor self-restraint, and belief in a frightening world. Results show that Ss who spent more time watching TV (especially more violent programs) were less likely to show self-restraint. Heavy TVV was significantly associated with Ss’ later aggressive behavior, restlessness, and belief in a frightening world. It is concluded that parents, educators, and industry representatives must take into consideration the possible consequences of unrestrained TVV on early school-aged children. (24 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)