Shafer, D. M. (2012). Causes of state hostility and enjoyment in player versus player and player versus environment video games. Journal Of Communication, 62(4), 719-737. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2012.01654.x

Video games have been under scholarly study since the 1980s, but few studies have blended the research areas of video games and aggression and video game enjoyment. This article seeks to determine how certain game play factors affect hostility, enjoyment, and the relationship between the 2 variables. A total of 289 students played games in player-versus-player (PvP) and player-versus-environment (PvE) situations. Findings indicate that outcome, competitive situation, and genre interact in their influence on state hostility and enjoyment. Results suggest that in some cases, game players are able to enjoy games despite negative experiences, such as losing, but players in PvP situations experience enjoyment-reducing levels of hostility, contrary to P. Vorderer et al.’s (2004) complex entertainment model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)