Scharrer, E. (2001). Tough guys: The portrayal of hypermasculinity and aggression in televised police dramas. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 45 (4), 615-634.

Abstract: Examined the presence of a macho personality constellation in male characters appearing in a wide variety of police and detectives programs, and investigated the association between machismo and antisocial actions of these characters. Subjects (Ss) comprised 321 male characters from police and detective dramas televised on US television programs during the period November 10-17, 1997. Ss were examined concerning levels of hypermasculinity and antisocial behavior in the areas of: (1) callous behavior toward females or sex; (2) drawn to danger for excitement and thrill; and (3) toughness as self-control over emotions. Results show strong associations for all Ss between physical aggression/antisocial behaviors and hypermasculinity. “Bad guys” exhibited a correlation between both callused attitudes and the pursuit of excitement and thrill with aggression; however, no relationship was observed concerning the use of toughness as self-control over emotions. “Good guys” exhibited a correlation between both the toughness as self-control over emotions and the pursuit of excitement and thrill dimensions with aggression and criminal behavior, but no such relationship resulted for