Scharrer, E. (2001). Men, muscles, and machismo: The relationship between television violence exposure and aggression and hostility in the presence of hypermasculinity. Media Psychology, 3 (2), 159-188.

Abstract: This study examined the effects of exposure to television programming that contains both violent actions and macho portrayals of male characters on subsequent self-reports of aggression and hostility. 30 male university undergraduates participated as experimental Ss and 30 as controls. Experimental results showed that those exposed to a violent and hypermasculine television program had a larger increase in reports of aggression and hostility compared to those exposed to a nonviolent, hypermasculine television program. Self-reports of higher levels of hypermasculinity prior to exposure led to larger increases in aggression and hostility after exposure. Predicted interactions between exposure to the stimulus and prior hypermasculinity occurred for many of the aggression/hostility dimensions. The theory of neo-associationism and priming is discussed to explain the patterns of results. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)