Rudman, L.A., & Lee, M.R. (2002). Implicit and explicit consequences of exposure to violent and misogynous rap music. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 5 (2), 133-150.

Abstract: Examined the effects of exposure to violent and misogynistic rap on automatic associations and stereotypic judgments of White and Black targets. In 2 experiments, a total of 105 Ss were primed and exposed to violent and misogynistic rap music or to popular music (unprimed controls). Ss then completed the Implicit Association Test. Results of Exp 1 show that violent and misogynistic rap music increased the automatic associations underlying evaluative racial stereotypes in high- and low- prejudiced subjects alike. By contrast, explicit stereotyping was dependent on priming and Ss’ prejudice level. In Exp 2, the priming manipulation was followed by a seemingly unrelated person perception task in which Ss rated Black or White targets described as behaving ambiguously. As expected, primed Ss judged a Black target less favorably than a White target. By contrast, control Ss rated Black and White targets similarly. Ss’ level of prejudice did not moderate these findings, suggesting the robustness of priming effects on social judgments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)