Pottler, W. J., Vaughan, M. W., Warrej, R., Howley, K., et al. (1995). How real is the portrayal of aggression in television entertainment programming? Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 39 (4), 496-516.
Abstract: Assessed the realism of portrayals of aggressive behavior on TV in terms of replicated reality and contextualized reality. Six graduate students coded 3,844 acts of aggression found in a composite week of 100.5 hrs of entertainment programming. Replicated reality was assessed by comparing the characteristics of televised portrayals to real-world characteristics, such as the demographics of the perpetrators and victims. The contextual reality was determined by examining the intention, motivation, reward, consequences, humor, and realism of the portrayal. TV replicated real-world aggression in terms of the seriousness of the aggression, as well as gender patterns of perpetrators and victims. Portrayals of race and age were not found to be close to real-world patterns of aggression. Findings for contextual reality did not support a morality play template. Differences were found among the contextual variables across degrees of realism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)