Pantin, H.M., Schwartz, S.J., Prado, G., Feaster, D.J., & Szapocznik, J. (2003). Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in Hispanic immigrants after the September 11th attack: Severity and relationship to previous traumatic exposure. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 25 (1), 56-72.

Abstract: Examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity in Hispanic immigrants exposed to September 11th attacks through television, ascertained the relationship between previous traumatic exposure and September 11th-related symptoms, and investigated the effect of television exposure of the attacks on symptoms. A total of 110 Hispanic immigrant 41-67-yr-olds living more than 1,000 miles from the attacks completed measures of natural disaster exposure, war violence exposure, and September 11th-related PTSD symptoms. Of the sample, 14% self-reported September 11th-related PTSD symptoms consistent with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) diagnosis. Previous exposure to natural disasters and war violence was significantly related to September 11th-related PTSD symptomatology. Individuals with symptoms consistent with a DSM-IV PTSD diagnosis reported twice as much war violence exposure and one-and-a-half times as much natural disaster exposure as those not meeting criteria. Results are discussed regarding potential public health implications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)