Panee, C.D., & Ballad, M.E. (2002). High versus low aggressive priming during video-game training: Effects on violent action during game play, hostility, heart rate, and blood pressure. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32 (12), 2458-2474.

Abstract: Playing violent video games is related to increased negative affect and cardiovascular reactivity. We examined the influence of high and low aggressive priming during video-game training on violence during game play (e.g., shooting, choking), hostility, frustration with game play, blood pressure, and heart rate. Male undergraduates (N=36) were assigned to a high aggressive or low aggressive video-game priming condition. After training, they played Metal Gear Solid®, which allows players to advance by using stealth, violence, or both. Participants in the high aggressive priming condition used significantly more violent action during game play and reported more hostility than those in the low aggressive priming condition. Heart rate was correlated with feelings of hostility. These findings indicate that both aggressive priming and use of game violence influence arousal and negative affect and might increase behavioral aggression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)