Nichols, K.S. (2001). Differential emotional expression of children while viewing violent movie scenes. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Kansas, 2001). Dissertation Abstracts International, 61 (12-B), 6739.

Abstract:  This study examined the differences in viewing reactions between 8-12 year-old children, diagnosed with Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) and those without behavior problems. Differences were assessed across verbal reports, facial expression, Skin Conductance Levels, and Vagal tone (respiratory sinus arrhythmia) while viewing both neutral and violent movie scenes. The children in the DBD group showed significantly more inconsistency between their facial expressions and their verbal responses than children without DBDs. Additionally, physiological data indicated under arousal in the children with DBDs in comparison to the children without DBDs. The children with DBDs had lower levels of Skin Level Conductance and vagal tone. This pattern of under-arousal has been associated with lower levels of attention and cognitive processing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)