Nettles, S.M., & Mucherah, W. (2000). Understanding resilience: The role of social resources. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 5 (1), 47-60.

Abstract:  Using the resilience literature as a theoretical framework, this article discusses research on the influence of social resources such as parent, teacher, and school support on the resilient outcomes of children and adolescents. Findings from several projects conducted at the Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed At Risk indicate that access to social resources such as caring parents who have high expectations for their children and are involved in their children’s schooling, participation in extracurricular activities (e.g., after-school sports), and supportive relationships with teachers have positive benefits for students’ academic performance. This article also reports results from 35 4th graders and 39 5th graders that show children’s perceived exposure to violence has significant negative effects on their mathematics and reading performance on a standardized exam. The findings demonstrate the importance of social resources and highlight the need for effective programs of intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)