Nathanson, A.I., Eveland, W.P., Park, H.S., & Paul, B.(2002). Perceived media influence and efficacy as predictors of caregivers’ protective behaviors. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 46 (3), 385-410.

Abstract:  A survey of 265 caregivers of 2nd through 8th graders was conducted to understand active mediation, restrictive mediation, and support for censorship. Active mediation and support for censorship occurred more frequently with violent television than with sexual television. Caregivers believed that other children were more likely to be affected by harmful content. Their use of protective behaviors depended on perceived threat for their own and other children, and perceptions of self- and response efficacy. When high threat perceptions were paired with efficacy assessments, caregivers used active mediation. When high threat perceptions overrode efficacy assessments, caregivers used restrictive mediation or supported censorship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)