Leith, L. M. (1982). An experimental analysis of the effect of vicarious participation in physical activity on subject aggressiveness. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 13 (4), 234-241.

Abstract:  Hypothesized that the type of filmed physical activity viewed (cooperative, competitive, or competitive-aggressive) would differentially affect the amount of aggression elicited. 60 high school males in 6 groups viewed cooperative, competitive, or competitive-aggressive films under angered and nonangered conditions. Ss’ level of aggression was measured both pre- and posttest. Difference scores from the pre- to the posttest conditions were subjected to ANOVAs and orthogonal contrasts to determine which treatment sums were significantly different. Data indicate that the strategy of physical activity viewed yielded significant differences. Application of orthogonal contrasts indicated that it was the actual viewing of an aggressive model that resulted in increased aggressiveness. No difference was found between angered and nonangered arousal conditions. (French, Spanish, German & Italian abstracts) (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)