Lang, A., Bradley, S. D., Schneider, E. F., Kim, S. C., & Mayell, S. (2012). Killing is positive! Intra-game responses meet the necessary (but not sufficient) theoretical conditions for influencing aggressive behavior. Journal Of Media Psychology: Theories, Methods, And Applications, 24(4), 154-165. doi:10.1027/1864-1105/a000075

This paper reports a study designed to investigate whether playing violent video games elicits the psychological conditions theoretically required for media use to cause aggressive behavior. Specifically, the study was designed to examine whether these games elicit desensitization, facilitation, and disinhibition. Thus, does physiological arousal in response to violent activity decrease over time during game play, and is there a difference between novice and experienced game players (as would be expected if desensitization had occurred)? Do players experience positive emotional states when actively engaged in virtual violent behavior (fighting and killing opponents) – a necessary condition for disinhibition? Do game players frame their motivations in terms of self-defense and game success, as would be necessary for facilitation to occur? The results showed that playing first-person shooters did elicit these requisite patterns of cognitive, physiological, and emotional states. Violent game play is a positive, arousing, present, dominant experience, as required for disinhibition and facilitation. Experienced game players are less aroused than less experienced game players (as required for desensitization). Further, during a game-playing session, exploring and searching for enemies become less arousing, while fighting and killing become more arousing over time (as required by desensitization and facilitation). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)