Lance, L.M., & Ross, C.E. (2000). Viewers of violence in American sports: A study of college students. College Student Journal, 34 (2), 191-199.

Abstract:  Investigated perceptions of violence in sports in general and perceptions of violence in intramural sports (ISs), including factors influencing violence in ISs, among university ISs participants. Social learning theory and social exchange theory were incorporated to account for factors contributing to the presence of violence in sports. A group-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 200 university ISs participants. It was hypothesized that encouragement by coaches and fellow participants to be violent would be perceived as factors contributing to violence in sports. It was also hypothesized that a desire to win would be perceived as contributing to violence in sports. Based on the results, support was found for both the social learning and the social exchange theories. Strong support was found for the perception that “weak” officials who do not take complete control of player violations contribute to violence in sports for both ISs and sports in general. There was also strong support for the perception that violence in sports is likely to result in personal injury. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)