Krcmar, M., Farrar, K., & McGloin, R. (2011). The effects of video game realism on attention, retention and aggressive outcomes. Computers In Human Behavior, 27(1), 432-439. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2010.09.005

This study used a between subjects, post-test only design to test the effects of video game realism (Doom 1 vs. Doom 3) and a control condition on attention, retention and aggressive outcomes. Overall, those who played Doom 3 perceived it as significantly more realistic than those who played Doom 1, thus providing validity for the manipulation. Next, those who played Doom 3 were significantly more attentive and experienced more presence than those who played Doom 1. Furthermore, playing either Doom game resulted in more aggression than playing no game and physically aggressive intentions were higher among those who played Doom 3 as compared to those who played Doom 1. Lastly, we tested for any possible interaction between realism and the attention and retention subfunctions on production and we found that, compared to the other players, those who experienced greater identification among those playing Doom 3 had higher verbal aggression. For physical aggression, those who played Doom 3 and experienced more attention and greater identification had higher aggression scores than those in the other conditions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)