Krahé, B. (2012). Report of the Media Violence Commission. Aggressive Behavior, 38(5), 335-341. doi:10.1002/ab.2144

The media landscape is ever changing, with new technologies resulting in greater interactivity on smaller, graphically superior, and computationally more powerful devices. These new technologies are tremendous resources for learning and knowledge acquisition at a rate unparalleled in the past. With new technologies, the opportunities for viewing violent content, which was once relegated to more public spaces, have become increasingly private. For other media contents unrelated to violence, it is widely accepted that what people see in the virtual reality of the media has an effect on their behavior in the real world. The issue is whether watching violent movies and shows or interactively engaging in violent games in a virtual world increases the odds that people may engage in aggressive behavior in a variety of forms, both in the short term and in the long term. No single risk factor causes a child or adolescent to act aggressively. Instead, it is the accumulation of risk factors that leads to an aggressive act. Although no individual risk factor may be necessary or sufficient to cause aggressive behavior on its own, each factor increases the likelihood of aggression, especially in response to some provocation. This model is known as the risk and resiliency model. After taking into consideration numerous characteristics of the child and the environment, including risk and protective factors, research clearly shows that media violence consumption increases the relative risk of aggression, defined as intentional harm to another person that could be verbal, relational, or physical. Though an extensive theory-based body of literature—including many replications and a number of studies using “best practices” methodologies—suggests that media violence consumption increases aggression, there is a persistent tendency, even among some educated people, to deny media violence effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)