Koolstra, C. (2007, February). Source confusion as an explanation of cultivation: A test of the mechanisms underlying confusion of fiction with reality on television. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 104(1), 102-110. Retrieved July 2, 2009, doi:10.2466/PMS.104.1.102-11

Cultivation studies have found evidence that heavy television viewers adopt a world view congruent with how the world is portrayed in fictional television programs. An explanation is that viewers may remember fictional TV stories as realistic stories or news (fiction-to-news confusion). Until now, fiction-to-news confusion was found only if at least a week evolved between watching TV and asking viewers what was remembered. The present study conducted with a purposive sample of students and employees of a college in The Netherlands (N = 96; Mage = 28.6 yr., SD = 10.9) indicates that fiction-to-news confusions can also occur almost immediately after watching. In addition, whereas earlier research suggests that fiction-to-news confusions are associated with heavy viewing, i.e., more confusion when more hours per day are spent on TV viewing in leisure time, and faulty memory, the present study more specifically suggests that participants make many fiction-to-news confusions when they are exposed to relatively many fictional TV fragments that contain threatening, violent events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved)(from the journal abstract)