Klein, H., & Shiffman, K. (2008). What animated cartoons tell viewers about assault. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 16(2), 181-201. Retrieved July 29, 2009, doi:10.1080/10926770801921568

Relying upon a content analysis of one specific type of medium to which young people are exposed beginning at an early age, on a regular basis, and for many years (i.e., animated cartoons), the present study examines what types of messages are provided about violence that takes the form of simple assault. Results indicate that assault is fairly prevalent in cartoons and that this prevalence has diminished over time. Most of the time, cartoons show assaults to “land” on their intended victims, but having done so, to cause few if any adverse effects. Moreover, assaults rarely backfire on the perpetrators. Anger, revenge, and inherent mean-spiritedness are the most common reasons implied for why characters commit acts of violent assault. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract)