Kahlor, L., & Eastin, M. S. (2011). Television’s role in the culture of violence toward women: A study of television viewing and the cultivation of rape myth acceptance in the United States. Journal Of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 55(2), 215-231. doi:10.1080/08838151.2011.566085

This study approached cultivation from a feminist, ecological perspective that recognized television at the macrosystem level as a purveyor of cultural norms embedded in a culture of violence towards women. The results suggest that general television consumption is related significantly to first- and second-order rape myth beliefs among men and women. Data also indicate positive relationships between soap opera viewing and both rape myth acceptance (second order beliefs) and the overestimation of false rape accusations (a first order belief), and a negative relationship between crime-show viewing and rape myth acceptance. Gender was a significant predictor of rape beliefs above and beyond the contributions of television viewing and other individual and micro-level variables. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)