Johnson, J. D., Jackson, L. A., & Gatto, L. (1995). Violent attitudes and deferred academic aspirations: Deleterious effects of exposure to rap music. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 16 (1-2), 27-41.

Abstract:  Assessed the effects of exposure to rap music on the attitudes and perceptions of 46 African-American males (aged 11-16 yrs). Ss were exposed to music videos featuring violent rap (VR), nonviolent rap (NVR), or no music videos (control). They read 2 vignettes, involving (1) an incident involving the use of violence, and (2) a situation involving a young man who had academic aspirations, but whose friend chose a dubious route to materialistic success. Compared with Ss in the NVR and control conditions, Ss in the VR condition expressed greater acceptance of the use of violence and reported a higher probability that they would engage in violence. Compared with control Ss, Ss in both rap video exposure conditions were more likely to say that they wanted to be like the materialistic young man and were less confident that the other young man would achieve his educational goals. Possible basis for and implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)