Ivory, J. (2006). New and improved: The effects of technological advancement and violent content in video games on player arousal, presence, attitudes, perceptions of interactivity, and aggression. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol 66(9-A), 2006. pp. 3140. Retrieved July 8, 2009, from PsycINFO database.
For two decades, empirical research has investigated the effects of violent video game play on aggression, with somewhat inconsistent results. One issue complicating examination of violent video game play’s effects on aggression is that video games have changed dramatically over the industry’s lifespan in terms of their technological advancement. The possible impact of these technological changes on video games‘ effects has often been discussed, but has not been thoroughly explored by empirical research. In addition, the impact of these changes may be different with violent video games than with nonviolent games. This research investigated the effects of technological advancement in video games on players’ physiological arousal, perceived presence and flow, attitudes toward the game, perceived interactivity, and affective and cognitive aggression. Specifically, an experiment employing a 2 X 2 between-subjects factorial design was used. The advancement factor was manipulated by exposing participants to either a newer or older game version, and the violence factor was manipulated by exposing participants to either a violent or nonviolent game. This main experiment was conducted following a pilot study examining the efficacy of independent variable manipulations, measurement of dependent variables, and experimental procedures. In general, participants who played newer games were more aroused, experienced greater presence, had more favorable attitudes toward the game they played, and reported more feelings of power compared to participants who played older games. Players of violent games reported less favorable attitudes toward the game they played, enjoyed the game less, were less likely to recommend the game to others, reported more feelings of power, and reported more hostile feelings compared to participants who played nonviolent games. Advancement and violence did not have consistent effects on perceived interactivity, accessibility of aggressive thoughts, or flow. Theoretical and practical implications of findings are discussed, and recommendations are made with regard to future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved)