Huebner, R., Garner, C., Gray, M., Gillespie, M., et al. (1986). The effects of no-win training films on aggression. Journal of Police Science and Administration, 14 (2), 146-152.

Abstract:  Studied whether films depicting apparent no-win situations contribute to aggressive behavior. Ss were from 2 groups: 21 police trainees and a group of 19 introductory English students. Ss given a revolver loaded with blanks viewed in individual rotation a film requiring a shoot/no shoot decision while being viewed by others. All Ss completed a Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) as a measure of personality trait aggression and also an assessment of the Situation Aggression Scale (SAS). A 1-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyze the data using the score on the 16PF as covariate and the score on the SAS as the dependent variable. Results do not support the hypothesis that no-win situation films contribute to aggression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)