Heath, L., Kruttschnitt, C., & Ward, D. (1986). Television and violent criminal behavior: Beyond the bobo doll. Victims and Violence, 1 (3), 177-191.

Abstract:  Interviewed 48 men (aged 18-25 yrs) incarcerated in Hennepin County, Minnesota, for violent criminal acts to determine the relationship between TV viewing between the ages of 8 and 12 yrs and subsequent commission of a violent criminal act. Ss’ crimes included murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault. A matched control group of 45 nonincarcerated, nonviolent males was included in the study. The interview instrument was composed of open- and closed-ended questions and paper-and-pencil items designed to document the Ss’ exposure to TV and domestic violence, family cohesiveness, school and peer relationships, and prior experiences with the criminal justice system. Data from this epidemiological method indicated that the combination of TV violence and parental abuse leads to violence in adult life. Cognitive formulations of neoassociationism, encoding specificity, and double-dose effects are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)