Hartmann, D. P. (1969). Influence of symbolically modeled instrumental aggression and pain cues on aggressive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 11 (3), 280-288.

Abstract:  Investigated the independent and interactive effects of anger instigation, aggressive displays, and pain cues on subsequent interpersonal aggression. 72 male adolescent delinquents were initially subjected either to anger-arousing or nonarousing experiences. Ss then viewed a nonaggressive control film or 1 of 2 films depicting a fight sequence: the pain-cues film, which focused on the victim’s pain responses, or the instrumental aggression film, which highlighted the agent’s aggressive behavior. The dependent measures were the duration and intensity of shocks that the Ss ostensibly administered to their provocateur whenever he made errors on an assigned learning task. Results revealed that (1) regardless of arousal level, Ss who witnessed the modeled aggression behaved more punitively than did Ss who had observed the same models behaving nonaggressively; (2) aroused viewers generally responded more punitively than did nonaroused viewers; (3) angered Ss who witnessed modeled pain reactions responded more punitively than did Os exposed to modeled instrumental aggression for nonaroused Ss this difference was in the reverse direction; and (4) Ss with longer records of antisocial behavior delivered more aversive stimulation than Ss with less extensive records, particularly when they were angered and observed displays of pain. Findings contradict the catharsis hypothesis in both its classical and revised versions. (33 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)