Haridakis, P.M. (2002). Viewer characteristics, exposure to television violence, and aggression. Media Psychology, 4 (4), 323-352.

Abstract:  Examined whether several viewer characteristics, in addition to exposure to television violence, help explain viewer aggression. Specifically, the author examined contribution of two personality characteristics (disinhibition and locus of control), a background characteristic (experience with crime), viewer motivation, exposure to television violence, and perceived realism of violent content. Usable data was drawn from 296 questionnaires completed by university students (mean age 20.49 yrs). Despite the attention that has been devoted to finding a connection between television violence and aggression over the years, several of the viewer characteristics studied were stronger predictors of viewer aggression. Results supported uses and gratifications’ notions that individual characteristics and expectations impact the effects of exposure. Because gender personality and background factors, and motivation for watching television violence differentially impacted viewer aggression, the results suggest that such viewer characteristics should be assessed when making predictions about the relationship between television violence and aggression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)