Hall, W. M., & Cairns, R. B. (1984). Aggressive behavior in children: An outcome of modeling of social reciprocity? Developmental Psychology, 20 (5), 739-745.

Abstract:  To clarify the roles of modeling and social reciprocity in the regulation of the aggressive actions of children, the authors assigned 100 1st- and 2nd-grade boys at random in pairs to 1 of 5 experimental film-modeling conditions. The conditions differed in the intensity of the aggressive behavior modeled and in whether both, 1, or neither S saw the modeling film. All of the Ss were tested in dyadic pairs, and types of aggressive behavior were analyzed as a function of experimental treatment and ongoing actions of the other S. Multiple regression analyses indicated both modeling and social reciprocity effects for the more direct aggressive interpersonal acts, but only strong reciprocal regulation for indirect and inanimate aggressive acts. It is proposed that modeling and interactive operations collaborate in determining the character of aggressive expression, with observational learning providing information about the setting/context, and acts of the peer serving as a powerful force in the regulation of the child’s ongoing behavior. (9 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)