Graybill, D., Strawniak, M., Hunter, T., & O’Leary, H. (1987). Effects of playing versus observing violent versus nonviolent video games on children’s aggression. Psychology: A Quarter’s Journal of Human Behavior, 24(3), 1-8.

Abstract:  Examined the short-term effects of playing vs observing violent vs nonviolent video games on the aggression of 146 2nd-6th graders. Ss played or observed their violent or nonviolent games for 14 min, then completed 3 measures of aggression. The behavioral measure was an apparatus on which Ss could push buttons to hurt or help another child. Ss also completed 2 self-report measures, A. D. Leifer and D. F. Roberts’s (1972) response hierarchy measure and the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study. There were no differences between the violent and nonviolent conditions on the measures of aggression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)