Graybill, D., Kirsch, J. R., & Esselman, E. D. (1985). Effects of playing violent versus nonviolent video games on the aggressive ideation of aggressive and nonaggressive children. Child Study Journal, 15 (3), 199-205.

Abstract:  39 2nd, 38 4th, and 39 6th graders were identified as aggressive or nonaggressive on the basis of peer ratings. Ss then played a violent or nonviolent video game for 8 min and were then administered the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study. Ss who played the violent video game exhibited fewer defensive fantasies and tended to exhibit more assertive or need-persistent fantasies than did Ss who played the nonviolent game. For nonaggressive females, the barrier responsible for frustration was more salient in their fantasies after playing the violent video game. Results suggest that aggression in the context of a video game discharges children’s aggressive impulses in a socially acceptable way, leaving the children less defensive and more assertive. (6 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)