Grana, J.L., Cruzado, J.A., Andreu, J.M., Munoz-Rivas, M.J., Pena, M.E., & Brain, P.F. (2004). Effects of viewing videos of bullfights on Spanish children. Aggressive Behavior, 30 (1), 16-28.

Abstract:  Some of the psychological effects of viewing bullfights on children 8-12 years old are described. Two hundred and forty subjects (120 girls and 120 boys) aged between eight and twelve from a variety of socioeconomic backgrounds were selected from three public or private elementary / secondary schools in Madrid, Spain. The first study used a questionnaire to examine the children’s attitudes towards bullfighting by looking at their acceptance and cognitive-emotional appraisal of the event. Videotapes of bullfights with differing commentaries were then used, along with a battery of questionnaires, to assess the emotional impact of these events, as well as the impact of narrative explanations on aggression and anxiety. Most children were not very positive about bullfights in the initial questionnaire. Viewing of tapes with ‘festive’ or aggressive dialogues (but not tapes without a justification) resulted in more expressed aggression in boys than girls. There was also evidence that age had a significant effect, and that some children appeared disturbed by the exposure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)