Gentile, D. A., Swing, E. L., Lim, C., & Khoo, A. (2012). Video game playing, attention problems, and impulsiveness: Evidence of bidirectional causality. Psychology Of Popular Media Culture, 1(1), 62-70. doi:10.1037/a0026969

The present study examines video game playing as it relates to attention problems and impulsiveness in a sample of 3,034 children and adolescents from Singapore measured over 3 years. Consistent with previous research, those who spend more time playing video games subsequently have more attention problems, even when earlier attention problems, sex, age, race, and socioeconomic status are statistically controlled. Violent content may have a unique effect on attention problems and impulsiveness, but total time spent with video games appears to be a more consistent predictor. Individuals who are more impulsive or have more attention problems subsequently spend more time playing video games, even when initial video game playing is statistically controlled, suggesting bidirectional causality between video game playing and attention problems/impulsiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)