Gentile, D. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2012). Reassessing media violence effects using a risk and resilience approach to understanding aggression. Psychology Of Popular Media Culture, 1(3), 138-151. doi:10.1037/a0028481

Public discourse about the effect of violent media on aggression has become contentious. We propose that violent media effects can best be understood within a risk and resilience framework that considers multiple factors that facilitate or inhibit aggression. In a prospective study, 430 third through fourth grade children, their peers, and their teachers were surveyed twice during the school year, about 6 months apart. Six risk/protective factors for aggression were measured: media violence exposure (TV, movies, video games), physical victimization, participant sex, hostile attribution bias, parental monitoring, and prior aggression. Each Time 1 risk factor (including media violence exposure) was associated with an increased risk of physical aggression at Time 2, whereas protective factors were associated with a decreased risk. There was also a Gestalt-type effect, where the combination of risk factors was a better predictor of aggression than the sum of their individual parts. The results offer strong support for a risk and resilience framework for aggression. Results also suggest that the effects of media violence exposure may be underestimated by standard data analysis procedures. Exposure to media violence acts similarly to other risk factors for aggression and therefore deserves neither special acclaim nor dismissal as a risk factor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)