Farrar, K., Krcmar, M., & Nowak, K. (2006, June). Contextual Features of Violent Video Games, Mental Models, and Aggression. Journal of Communication, 56(2), 387-405. Retrieved July 7, 2009, doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2006.00025.x

This experiment employed a 2 (third vs. first person) × 2 (blood on/off) × 2 (sex) design in order to examine the effects of two internal video game manipulations: the presence of blood and point of view on participants’ perceptions of the game. Overall, when the blood manipulation was on, participants perceived greater gore. Players were significantly more focused when they played in the third-person point of view than when they played in first person. Males were more involved in the game overall regardless of point of view, but females were more focused and involved when they played in third, not first, person. In addition, we wanted to see if game manipulations and perceptions of the game affected aggressive outcomes. Those who played the game in the blood-on condition had more physically aggressive intentions, and when players were more involved and immersed in the game, they reported greater hostility and physically aggressive intentions. Findings are discussed as they relate to mental models of media violence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved)(from the journal abstract)