Eschholz, S., & Bufkin, J. (2001). Crime in the movies: Investigating the efficacy of measures of both sex and gender for predicting victimization and offending in film. Sociological Forum, 16 (4), 655-676.

Abstract:  In the wake of several recent school shootings claims have been made that teens, particularly males, learn violence from the media. This paper investigates depictions of criminals and victims in film, specifically in reference to the gendered nature of violent crime, utilizing a content analysis of popular domestic movies in 1996. The authors develop a gender measure that is separate and distinct from sex in order to test the relationship between both variables and movie offending and victimization. In this sample, masculinity was significantly related to both movie offending and victimization, but sex was not. This pattern of results indicate that the media may be influential in establishing values that accept violence as one means to accomplish masculinity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)