End, C.M. (2002). The influence of ingroup/outgroup norms on sport fans’ aggressive responses to social identity threat. (Doctoral dissertation, Miami University, 2002). Dissertation Abstracts International, 63 (2-B), 1086.

Abstract:  This investigation examined the impact of identification level, social identity threat, and modeling on sport fans‘ tendencies to aggress toward fans of an opposing team in a deindividuated, experimental setting. High and low identifying fans of victorious and defeated teams were recruited to participate in a “Web Page Impressions” study. These fans viewed an opposing team’s fan’s home page. The content of the home page contained aggression (verbal) modeled by an ingroup or outgroup member, or no aggressive content. After viewing the home page, participants were provided with various opportunities to aggress toward the home page creator. Analyses indicated that identification level, social identity threat, and modeling did not affect participants’ tendencies to aggress. The implications of these findings for future research on sport fan aggression are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)