Eastin, M., & Griffiths, R. (2006, December). Beyond the Shooter Game: Examining Presence and Hostile Outcomes Among Male Game Players. Communication Research, 33(6), 448-466. Retrieved July 6, 2009, doi:10.1177/0093650206293249

 

Investigating male game players, this study explores how game interface (virtual reality [VR] and standard console), game content (fighting, shooting, and driving), and game context (human and computer competition) influence levels of presence and hostile expectation bias-the expectation others will think, feel, speak, and act aggressively during social conflict. In addition to game interface and game content influencing hostile expectations, significant interactions were detected for hostile expectations. Presence, although not as predicted, also significantly differed across game interface and game content. Through the development and testing of each gaming experience, this study demonstrates that simply testing violent and nonviolent game situations underestimates the complexity of contemporary videogame play. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved)(from the journal abstract)