Dominick, J. R. (1984). Videogames, television violence, and aggression in teenagers. Media effects on the young, 34 (2), 136-1.
Abstract: 110 male and 140 female 10th-11th graders estimated the total amount of time and money spent playing videogames (VGs), social environment during VG sessions, and their viewing of TV violence. The purpose was to investigate the relationships among (1) VG playing and watching violent TV programs; (2) VG playing, watching violent TV programs, and antisocial behavior; and (3) VG playing and self-esteem. Aggression, self-esteem, and SES measures were also administered to Ss. Results show that VG playing, a popular activity among Ss in general, differed in the amount and type between males and females. Ss who watched more violent TV shows were also those who spent more time playing VGs that usually also revolved around violence. Viewing violent TV programs was significantly related to manifest physical aggression for Ss in general. There was no relationship between VG playing and self-esteem among females; however, TV viewing, VG playing, and SES were all inversely correlated with self-esteem for males. It is concluded that VG playing is neither the menace that many of its critics have portrayed it to be nor necessarily without possible negative consequences. (17 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)