DeVane, B., & Squire, K. (2008, July). The meaning of race and violence in Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas. Games and Culture: A Journal of Interactive Media, 3(3), 264-285. Retrieved June 11, 2009, doi:10.1177/1555412008317308

This research study investigates how youths actually play Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas and what meanings they make from it. This study finds that players use their own experiences and knowledge to interpret the game—they do not passively receive the games’ images and content. The meanings they produce about controversial subjects are situated in players’ local practices, identities, and discourse models as they interact with the game’s semiotic domain. The results suggest that scholars need to study players in naturalistic settings if they want to see what “effects” games are having on players. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved)(from the journal abstract)