Chong, Y., Teng, K., Siew, S., & Skoric, M. M. (2012). Cultivation effects of video games: A longer-term experimental test of first- and second-order effects. Journal Of Social And Clinical Psychology, 31(9), 952-971. doi:10.1521/jscp.2012.31.9.952

This experiment examined cultivation effects resulting from a repeated, longer-term exposure to a violent video game, Grand Theft Auto IV. Over a period of three weeks, participants in the treatment condition played a violent video game in a controlled laboratory setting for a total of 12 hours. Following this period, participants completed a questionnaire which included demographics as well as first- and second-order cultivation measures and their scores were compared with the control group of participants who did not play the game. The findings provide some support for first-order effects, but only very limited support for second-order cultivation effects. Unexpectedly, second-order effects were in the opposite direction from a theorized one, suggesting a possible counter-cultivation mechanism at work. The theoretical implications of the findings for cultivation research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)